Fischer Esterification

   Fischer Esterification

Conversion of carboxylic acids to esters using acid and alcohols 

Fischer Esterification
Fischer Esterification
When a carboxylic acid is treated with an alcohol and an acid catalyst, an ester is formed (along with water). This reaction is called the Fischer esterification.
This is a reversible reaction. The alcohol is generally used as solvent so is present in large excess. 

some other examples are
Fischer Esterification
Fischer Esterification
The byproduct of each of these reactions is water. 
The fourth example is an intramolecular reaction that forms a cyclic ester. 
Cyclic esters are also called Lactones.

The reaction is useful in the synthesis of esters, which are commonly used as fragrances, flavors, and solvents. The reaction can also be used to convert carboxylic acids into their corresponding esters, which can be more volatile 
and easier to handle than the parent acid.
However, Fischer esterification has some limitations, such as the fact that the reaction is reversible and the equilibrium can be shifted towards the starting materials. Additionally, the reaction is sensitive to the presence of water,
which can hydrolyze the ester and shift the equilibrium back towards the
starting materials.
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