# Hydrogen Spectrum

## Hydrogen Spectrum

The hydrogen spectrum refers to the unique set of wavelengths of light emitted by an atom of hydrogen when it transitions from a higher energy state to a lower energy state. This phenomenon is also called atomic emission spectroscopy, and it is an important tool for studying the structure of atoms and their electronic properties.

The hydrogen spectrum consists of several discrete lines that correspond to different energy level transitions in the hydrogen atom. These transitions can be described by the Balmer, Lyman, Paschen, Brackett, and Pfund series, which are named after their respective discoverers.

If an electric discharge is passed through hydrogen gas taken in a discharge tube under low pressure, and the emitted radiation is analyzed with the help of spectrograph, it is found to consist of a series of sharp lines in the UV, visible and IR regions. This series of lines is known as line or atomic spectrum of hydrogen. The lines in the visible region can be directly seen on the photographic film.

Each line of the spectrum corresponds to a light of definite wavelength. The entire spectrum consists of six series of lines, each series, known after their discoverer as the Balmer, Paschen, Lyman, Brackett, Pfund and Humphrey series. The wavelength of all these series can be expressed by a single formula.

1/ Î» = v- = R (1/ n12 - 1/n22)
Î» = wave length
R = Rydberg constant (109678 cm–1)

Note: All lines in the visible region are of Balmer series but reverse is not true. i.e., all Balmer lines will not fall in visible region. The pattern of lines in atomic spectrum is characteristic of hydrogen.

### LYMAN SERIES:

When an electron jumps from any of the higher states to the ground state or Ist state (n = 1), the series of spectral lines emitted lies in ultra-violet region and are called as Lyman Series. The wavelength (or wave number) of any line of the series can be given by using the relation:

### BALMER SERIES:

When an electron jumps from any of the higher states to the state with n = 2 (IInd state), the series of spectral lines emitted lies in visible region and are called as Balmer Series. The wave number of any spectral line can be given by using the relation:

### PASCHEN SERIES:

When an electron jumps from any of the higher states to the state with n = 3. The series of spectral lines emitted lies in near infra-red region and are called as Paschen Series. The wave number of any spectral line can be given by using the relation:

### BRACKETT SERIES:

When an electron jumps from any of the higher states to the state with n = 4, the series of spectral lines emitted lies in far infra-red region and called as Brackett Series. The wave number of any spectral line can be given by using the relation:

### PFUND SERIES:

When an electron jumps from any of the higher states to the state with n = 5 , the series of spectral lines emitted lies in far infra-red region and are called
as Pfund Series . The wave number of any spectral line can be given by using the relation:

The hydrogen spectrum is important in many fields of science, including astrophysics, where it is used to identify elements in distant stars and galaxies, and in chemistry, where it is used to study the electronic structure of molecules.